Explore  Mongolia


Official name: Mongolia
Population: 3,026,271
Area: 1,565,000 square km 
Capital: Ulaanbaatar 
Official language:  Mongolian over 90%
Major religion: Buddhism 
Literacy: about 93%
Political system: Parliamentary republic 

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Mongolia is located in the central part of Asia, neighboring with Russia and China. The total territory of the country is 1.5 million square kilometers and the most sparsely populated country in the world. Mongolia is the eighteenth largest country in the world by size of territory. It is also the world's second-largest landlocked country. The average altitude is 1580m above sea level. The highest point is the Khuiten peak (4374) in the west. Mongolia is home to high mountains, wide steppe and Gobi desert. Additionally, Mongolia is land of a lot of species of fauna and flora such as 136 mammal species, almost 400 different types of birds and 76 species of fish. There are some rarest animals like Gobi bear, snow leopard etc. 


Mongolia has an extreme continental climate with long, cold winters and short summers. 
In winter, temperatures can drop to minus 50 degree whereas summer’s temperatures can rise to 25 degrees. The coldest month is January. Mongolia is the land of winds and especially sharp winds blow in spring. Mongolia usually has about 250 sunny days a year because it is called as “the land of blue sky”.


The official language is Mongolian which Altai language family. It is spoken by 95% of the population. 


Mongolia has around 3 million people. The majority of the population of Mongolia is Khalkha Mongols, but minority groups include Kazakh, Dorvod, Bayad, Buriad, Dariganga, Zahchin, Urianhai, Oolld. and Torguud. In other words, there are more than 20 ethnic groups. The largest of these minority groups, Kazakhs make up around 5% percent of the total population. 
The nation also has an extremely young population, with over 70 percent of people less than thirty years old, and 30% under the age of 14.


The Mongolian cuisine is divided into diary and meat food. The meat food comprises the meals made of pure and fresh meat alone. The uncut meat is also used for making such national peculiar dishes as horhog, boodog. Also, two of the most popular dishes are Buuz (a meat filled steamed dumpling) and Khuushuur (a sort of deep-fried meat pie.)
All four seasons especially in summertime, Mongolians prefer to drink fermented milk (mare’s milk), cow and goat’s milk, yoghurt and eat dried curds, cheese. 


Buddhist Lamaism (94%) since 14th century, Shamaism (in the north), Muslems in the West (Kazakh groups).The main religion is Lamaism or Buddhism, which is the Yellow Sect of Tibetan Buddhism. Traditionally, Mongols practiced Shamanism, worshipping the Blue Sky. However, Tibetan Buddhism (also called Vajrayana Buddhism) gained more popularity after it was introduced in 16th century. Tibetan Buddhism shared the common Buddhist goals of individual release from suffering and reincarnation. 
At the beginning of the 20th century, Mongolia had hundreds of Buddhist monasteries and about 30 percent of all men were monks. Communists led an anti-religious campaign in the 1930s, more than 700 monasteries were destroyed and thousands of monks were killed.


Economic activity traditionally in Mongolia has been based on the agriculture and breeding of livestock: sheep, goats, cattle (mainly yak), horses, and camels. Numerous products including meat, dairy products, wool and cashmere are collected from these livestock. Agricultural production takes place in some regions where grains (wheat, crop,), potatoes, and other vegetables are grown. 
Mongolia also has extensive mineral deposits: copper, coal, molybdenum, tin, tungsten and gold account for a large part of industrial production. 


Chronologies of important events
Mongolia in the 13th century   
Mongolia in 20th century